A cosmological extension of the Eisenhart–Duval metric is constructed by incorporating a cosmic scale factor and the energy-momentum tensor into the scheme. The dynamics of the spacetime is governed by the Ermakov–Milne–Pinney equation. Killing isometries include spatial translations and rotations, Newton–Hooke boosts and translation in the null direction. Geodesic motion in Ermakov–Milne–Pinney cosmoi is analyzed. The derivation of the Ermakov–Lewis invariant, the Friedmann equations and the Dmitriev–Zel'dovich equations within the Eisenhart–Duval framework is presented.
We propose that gravitational interactions of cosmic neutrinos with the statistically homogeneous and isotropic fluctuations of space-time lead to decoherence. This working hypothesis, which we describe by means of a Lindblad operator, is applied to the system of two- and three-flavour neutrinos undergoing vacuum oscillations and the consequences are investigated. As a result of this decoherence we find that the neutrino entropy would increase as a function of initial spectral distortions, mixing angles and charge-parity (CP)-violation phase. Subsequently we discuss the chances to discover such an increase observationally (in principle). We also present the expected flavour composition of the cosmic neutrino background after decoherence is completed. The physics of two- or three-flavour oscillation of cosmological neutrinos resembles in many aspects two- or three-level systems in atomic clocks, which were recently proposed by Weinberg for the study of decoherence phenomena.
Research in hybrid electronics has included advances in materials, devices and architectures. However, in practice, controversy still exists on some details which limit hybrid materials to high-performance applications, such as processing–structure–design–property relations. This paper describes a practical approach to enhancing the sensing performance of a prototype ammonia gas sensor based on electrical conductivity changes, percolation theory and current limitation to a semiconducting polymer-metal oxide medium. This device is based on fully-gravure printed polyaniline/indium - tin oxide nanocomposites, Pani100−xITOx [0 ≤ x≤ 100% (wt/wt)], layers on a freestanding high-density polyethylene substrate. We find that the electrical current of the device decreases and tends to saturate as the gas concentration increases, and the value of this electrical current limit (IL) depends on x: the higher the value of x, the smaller the IL, when the current that flows through the electronic device was dominated by the ITO-nanoparticle filled PAni, which increase the concentration of hopping carriers and contribute to the desired electrical response of a heterogeneous gas sensor. In this regime, we find a good linear relationship between x and ammonia concentration. These findings suggest new directions for future research on the development and investigation of organic-inorganic devices in which the electrical current variation is desired for enhanced sensitivity and stability of hybrid sensors.
We report on an experimental investigation of serpentine, an abundant phyllosilicate, as an alternative source of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. We show, through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements, that natural serpentine mineral can be mechanically exfoliated down to few-layer flakes, where monolayers can be easily resolved. The parent serpentine bulk material was initially characterized via conventional techniques like XRD, XPS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies and the results show that it is predominantly constituted by the antigorite mineral. From ab initio calculations using DFT, we also determine the geometry and electronic structure of antigorite, the observed structural form of serpentine. Additionally, we further characterized electrical and mechanical properties of the obtained 2D material flakes using SPM and broadband synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy. Wavelength tuning of the serpentine vibrational resonances, assigned to in- and out-of-plane molecular vibrations, are observed and compared with the FTIR characterization of the parent bulk material. They show that there is no degradation of serpentine`s structural properties during its mechanical exfoliation down to nanometer-thin sheets. Therefore, our results introduce the serpentine mineral as an attractive low-cost candidate in 2D materials applications.