A Newtonian-like theory inspired by the Brans–Dicke gravitational Lagrangian has been recently proposed by us. For static configurations, the gravitational coupling acquires an intrinsic spatial dependence within the matter distribution. Therefore, the interior of astrophysical configurations may provide a testable environment for this approach as long as no screening mechanism is evoked. In this work, we focus on the stellar hydrostatic equilibrium structure in such a varying Newtonian gravitational coupling G scenario. A modified Lane–Emden equation is presented and its solutions for various values of the polytropic index are discussed. The role played by the theory parameter ω, the analogue of the Brans–Dicke parameter, in the physical properties of stars is discussed.
Hundred years after the flu pandemic of 1918, the world faces an outbreak of a new severe acute respiratory syndrome, caused by a novel coronavirus. With a high transmissibility, the pandemic spreads worldwide, creating a scenario of devastation in many countries. By the middle of 2021, about 3% of the world population has been infected and more than 4 million people have died. Different from the H1N1 pandemic, which had a deadly wave and cessed, the new disease is maintained by successive waves, mainly produced by new virus variants, and the small number of vaccinated people. In the present work, we create a version of the SIR model with spatial localization of persons, their movements, and taking into account social isolation probabilities. We discuss the effects of virus variants, and the role of vaccination rate in the pandemic dynamics. We show that, unless a global vaccination is implemented, we will have continuous waves of infections.HighlightsThe COVID-19 has infected more than 200 millions and has killed more than 4 million persons.WHO has not been successful in defining a global vaccination policy.Many epidemic scenarios arise when different countries apply different vaccination strategies.Present model can show some insights on how vaccination programs can be managed.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThis research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the commercial, or non-profit sectors. SPR acknowledges grant from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq, through proccess 306572/2019-2.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:The manuscript is a modeling paper, there was no clinical trial of any kind.All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesThe code of model is included in manuscript files.
In this work we apply first principles calculations to investigate the flat band phenomenology in twisted antimonene bilayer. We show that the relatively strong interlayer interactions which characterize this compound have profound effects in the emergence and properties of the flat bands. Specifically, when the moiré length becomes large enough to create well defined stacking patterns along the structure, out-of-plane displacements take place and are stabilized in the regions dominated by the AB stacking, leading to the emergence of flat bands. The interplay between structural and electronic properties allows for detection of flat bands in higher twist angles comparable to other two-dimensional materials. We also show that their energy position may be modulated by noncovalent functionalization with electron acceptor molecules.
Economic viability and eco-friendliness are important characteristics that make implants available to the population in a sustainable way. In this work, we evaluate the performance of a low-cost, widely available, and eco-friendly material (talc from soapstone) relative to reduced graphene oxide as reinforcement to brittle hydroxyapatite coatings. We employ a low-cost and straightforward technique, electrodeposition, to deposit the composite coatings on the titanium substrate. Corrosion, wear, and biocompatibility tests indicate that the reduced graphene oxide can be effectively replaced by talc without reducing the mechanical, anticorrosion, and biocompatible composite coatings properties. Our results indicate that talc from soapstone is a promising material for biomedical applications.
Co-, Ni-, and Mn-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics were synthesized herein through a solid-state reaction. All doped BFO samples exhibit visible-light response, and the Co- and Ni-doped BFO samples present enhanced ferromagnetic order at room temperature. All doped samples show secondary phases in minor quantities. Optical spectra reveal two absorptions bands, indicating multiple electron transitions for BFO and its secondary phases. M − H hysteresis loops suggest enhanced ferromagnetism in the Co- and Ni-doped BFO samples because of magnetic spinel CFP and NFO phases, respectively, whereas changes in oxygen vacancies and Fe–O–Fe bond angle play minor roles in the ferromagnetic behavior.
In this work, we apply a combination of theoretical techniques to characterize a two-dimensional material with formula B2N2O2, featuring a zigzag array of nitrogen atoms. We predict its energetic, thermal, and dynamic stability and determine its electronic properties, including band structure and mobility evaluation for a phonon-mediated mechanism. We show that the compound is a wideband-gap semiconductor, with parabolic band edges and with large electron and hole mobilities within the deformation potential approach. We ascribe this result to the existence of electronic channels defined by the zigzag array of nitrogen bonds, which define the edges of both conduction and valence bands. We also propose a mechanism to synthesize the compound based on oxygen functionalization and application of pressure. Finally, we show that the results can be generalized to represent a family of 2D compounds.
Unimodular gravity is one of the oldest geometric gravity theories and alternatives to general relativity. Essentially, it is based on the Einstein–Hilbert Lagrangian with an additional constraint on the determinant of the metric. It can be explicitly shown that unimodular gravity can be recast as general relativity in the presence of a cosmological constant. This fact has led to many discussions on the equivalence of both theories at the classical and quantum levels. Here, we present an analysis focused on the classical scalar perturbations around a cosmological background. We focus on the unusual situation in which the typical conservation laws are not adopted. The discussion is extended to the case where a non-minimal coupled scalar field is introduced. We also present a gauge-invariant analysis showing that perturbations in unimodular gravity display instabilities. Our results reinforce that the equivalence is not verified completely at a cosmological perturbative level.
Moiré superlattices of two-dimensional heterostructures arose as a new platform to investigate emergent behaviour in quantum solids with unprecedented tunability. To glean insights into the physics of these systems, it is paramount to discover new probes of the moiré potential and moiré minibands, as well as their dependence on external tuning parameters. Hydrostatic pressure is a powerful control parameter, since it allows to continuously and reversibly enhance the moiré potential. Here we use high pressure to tune the minibands in a rotationally aligned MoS2/WSe2 moiré heterostructure, and show that their evolution can be probed via moiré phonons. The latter are Raman-inactive phonons from the individual layers that are activated by the moiré potential. Moiré phonons manifest themselves as satellite Raman peaks arising exclusively from the heterostructure region, increasing in intensity and frequency under applied pressure. Further theoretical analysis reveals that their scattering rate is directly connected to the moiré potential strength. By comparing the experimental and calculated pressure-induced enhancement, we obtain numerical estimates for the moiré potential amplitude and its pressure dependence. The present work establishes moiré phonons as a sensitive probe of the moiré potential as well as the electronic structures of moiré systems.
Natural Language Processing (NLP) makes use of Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract meaningful information from unstructured texts, i.e., content that lacks metadata and cannot easily be indexed or mapped onto standard database fields. It has several applications, from sentiment analysis and text summary to automatic language translation. In this work, we use NLP to figure out similar structural linguistic patterns among several different languages. We apply the word2vec algorithm that creates a vector representation for the words in a multidimensional space that maintains the meaning relationship between the words. From a large corpus we built this vectorial representation in a 100-dimensional space for English, Portuguese, German, Spanish, Russian, French, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Italian, Arabic, Hebrew, Basque, Dutch, Swedish, Finnish, and Estonian. Then, we calculated the fractal dimensions of the structure that represents each language. The structures are multi-fractals with two different dimensions that we use, in addition to the token-dictionary size rate of the languages, to represent the languages in a three-dimensional space. Finally, analyzing the distance among languages in this space, we conclude that the closeness there is tendentially related to the distance in the Phylogenetic tree that depicts the lines of evolutionary descent of the languages from a common ancestor.