Faria AMA, Miranda MA, Gonçalves GE, Bianchi RF, Bianchi AGC, Cuba C, Neves BRA, Pinto ES
. Partially ordered porous structures on layer-by-layer polyaniline/poly(vinyl sulfate sodium) ultrathin films: Easy fabrication of robust submicroscopic patterning
. Journal of Applied Polymer Science [Internet]. 2020;137 (17) :48597. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACT The use of polyaniline (PANI) as a conductive material has steadily increased in recent years due to its interesting physicochemical properties, low manufacturing cost, and easy processing. This conductive material, associated with the diffraction properties of organized nanostructures in thin films, has excellent application potential in microelectronics and photonic devices. Initially, this work presents improvement routes for the breath figure method (a nanopatterning technique) in polystyrene (PS) films through the control of film deposition parameters and the presence of water in the polymer solution. Such improvements are then extended to the production of PANI nanostructures, in the form of pores, from patterned porous PS films. Consequently, PANI films with a partially ordered pore structure (mean pore diameter of 100 nm) are produced in a facile and easily scalable method. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2020, 137, 48597.
Antoniazzi I, Chagas T, Matos MJS, Marçal LAB, Soares EA, Mazzoni MSC, Miwa RH, Lopes JMJ, Malachias Â, Magalhães-Paniago R, et al. Oxygen intercalated graphene on SiC(0001): Multiphase SiOx layer formation and its influence on graphene electronic properties
. Carbon [Internet]. 2020. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Low-dimensionality materials are highly susceptible to interfaces. Indeed, intercalation of different chemical species in between epitaxial graphene and silicon carbide (SiC), for instance, may decouple the graphene with respect to the substrate due to the conversion of the buffer layer into a graphene layer. O-intercalation is known to release the strain of such 2D material and to lead to the formation of high structural quality AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Nonetheless, this interface transformation concomitantly degrades graphene electronic transport properties. In this work we employed different techniques in order to better understand the structure of the graphene/SiC interface generated by O-intercalation and to elucidate the origin of the poor electronic properties of graphene. Experimental results revealed the formation of a SiO2 rich layer with a defective transition layer in between it and the SiC, which is characterized by the existence of silicon oxycarbide structures. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements revealed an extensive presence of electronic states just around the Fermi level all over the sample surface, which may suppress the charge carriers mobility around this region. According to theoretical calculations, such states are mainly due to the formation of silicon oxicarbides within the interfacial layer.
Freitas] DN [de, Mendonça BHS, Köhler MH, Barbosa MC, Matos MJS, Batista RJC, Oliveira] AB [de
. Water Diffusion in Carbon Nanotubes Under Directional Electric Fields: Coupling Between Mobility and Hydrogen Bonding
. Chemical Physics [Internet]. 2020 :110849. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Molecular Dynamics simulations of water confined in carbon nanotubes subjected to external electric fields show that water mobility strongly depends on the confining geometry, the intensity and directionality of the electric field. While fields forming angles of 0° and 45° slow down the water dynamics by increasing organization, perpendicular fields can enhance water diffusion by decreasing hydrogen bond formation. For 1.2 diameter long nanotubes, the parallel field destroys the ice-like water structure increasing mobility. These results indicate that the structure and dynamics of confined water are extremely sensitive to external fields and can be used to facilitate filtration processes.
Frizon TEA, Vieira AA, da Silva FN, Saba S, Farias G, de Souza B, Zapp E, Lôpo MN, de Braga HC, Grillo F, et al. Synthesis of 2,1,3-Benzoxadiazole Derivatives as New Fluorophores—Combined Experimental, Optical, Electro, and Theoretical Study
. Frontiers in Chemistry [Internet]. 2020;8 :360. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of fluorophores containing a 2,1,3-benzoxadiazole unit associated with a π-conjugated system (D-π-A-π-D). These new fluorophores in solution exhibited an absorption maximum at around 419 nm (visible region), as expected for electronic transitions of the π-π* type (ε 2.7 × 107 L mol−1 cm−1), and strong solvent-dependent fluorescence emission (ΦFL 0.5) located in the bluish-green region. The Stokes' shift of these compounds is ca. 3,779 cm−1, which was attributed to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. In CHCl3 solution, the compounds exhibited longer and shorter lifetimes, which was attributed to the emission of monomeric and aggregated molecules, respectively. Density functional theory was used to model the electronic structure of the compounds 9a–d in their excited and ground electronic states. The simulated emission spectra are consistent with the experimental results, with different solvents leading to a shift in the emission peak and the attribution of a π-π* state with the characteristics of a charge transfer excitation. The thermal properties were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis, and a high maximum degradation rate occurred at around 300°C. Electrochemical studies were also performed in order to determine the band gaps of the molecules. The electrochemical band gaps (2.48–2.70 eV) showed strong correlations with the optical band gaps (2.64–2.67 eV).
Ribeiro SP, Dattilo W, Castro e Silva A, Reis AB, Goes-Neto A, Alcantara L, Giovanetti M, Fernandes GW, Azevedo VA, Coura-vital W
. Severe airport sanitarian control could slow down the spreading of COVID-19 pandemics in Brazil
. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background. We investigated a likely scenario of COVID-19 spreading in Brazil through the complex airport network of the country, for the 90 days after the first national occurrence of the disease. After the confirmation of the first imported cases, the lack of a proper airport entrance control resulted in the infection spreading in a manner directly proportional to the amount of flights reaching each city, following first occurrence of the virus coming from abroad. Methodology. We developed a SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model divided in a metapopulation structure, where cities with airports were demes connected by the number of flights. Subsequently, we further explored the role of Manaus airport for a rapid entrance of the pandemic into indigenous territories situated in remote places of the Amazon region. Results. The expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus between cities was fast, directly proportional to the airport closeness centrality within the Brazilian air transportation network. There was a clear pattern in the expansion of the pandemic, with a stiff exponential expansion of cases for all cities. The more an airport showed closeness centrality, the greater was its vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions. We discussed the weak pandemic control performance of Brazil in comparison with other tropical, developing countries, namely India and Nigeria. Finally, we proposed measures for containing virus spreading taking into consideration the scenario of high poverty.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementFunding by CNPqAuthor DeclarationsAll relevant ethical guidelines have been followed; any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained and details of the IRB/oversight body are included in the manuscript.YesAll necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesI state all data will be available in submission material
Fabris JC, Caramês TRP, Wojnar A, Velten HES
. Viscous effects in the dark sector of the Universe
. International Journal of Modern Physics A [Internet]. 2020;35 (02n03) :2040041. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Viscous properties are attributed to the dark sector of the Universe. They contribute to the accelerated expansion phase of the Universe and can alleviate existing tensions in the ΛCDM model at small scales. We provide a short review of recent efforts on this topic. Different viscous models for the dark sector are analysed both from theoretical and observational point of view.
Souza A, Matos MJS, Mazzoni MSC
. Oxidation-driven formation of precisely ordered antimonene nanoribbons
. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter [Internet]. 2020. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The control of geometric structure is a key aspect in the interplay between theoretical predictions and experimental realization in the science and applications of nanomaterials. This is particularly important in one-dimensional structures such as nanoribbons, in which the edge morphology dictates most of the electronic behavior in low energy scale. In the present work we demonstrate by means of first principles calculations that the oxidation of few-layer antimonene may lead to an atomic restructuring with formation of ordered multilayer zig-zag nanoribbons. The widths are uniquely determined by the number of layers of the initial structure, allowing the synthesis of ultranarrow ribbons and chains. We also show that the process may be extended to other compounds based on group V elements, such as arsenene. The characterization of the electronic structure of the resulting ribbons shows an important effect of stacking on band gaps and on modulation of electronic behavior.
. O que conhecemos de todos o cosmos?
. Revista Conexões [Internet]. 2019;13 (4) :63-69. Publisher's VersionAbstract
v. 13, n. 4 (2019): Especial: Física p.63-69
Daouda M, Fabris JC, Oliveira AM, Smirnov F, Velten HES
. Nonconservative traceless type gravity
. International Journal of Modern Physics D [Internet]. 2019;28 (15) :1950175. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Extensions of the gravity theory in order to obtain traceless field equations have been widely considered in the literature. The leading example of such class of theories is the unimodular gravity, but there are other possibilities like the mimetic gravity and the Rastall gravity with a coupling parameter λ = 1/2. The unimodular gravity proposal is a very interesting approach in order to address the cosmological constant problem. When coupled to matter, such theories may imply that the energy–momentum tensor is not divergence free anymore. In this paper, a unimodular type theory will be developed by evading the conservation T;μμν = 0. The cosmological consequences of the later, both at background as well as for scalar and tensor perturbations, are explored. Possible further extensions of this approach are discussed as well as its connection with the traditional unimodular gravity.
Barboza APM, Souza ACR, Matos MJS, Brant JC, Barbosa TC, Chacham H, Mazzoni MSC, Neves BRA
. Graphene/h-BN heterostructures under pressure: From van der Waals to covalent
. Carbon [Internet]. 2019;155 :108 - 113. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Scanning probe microscopy and ab initio calculations reveal modifications on the electronic and structural properties of graphene/h-BN heterostructures induced by compression. Using AFM and EFM techniques, with charge injection being made in the heterostructures at different pressures, the charge injection efficiency monotonically decreases with increasing pressure for monolayer-graphene (MLG)+BN heterostructures, indicative of a conductor-insulator electronic transition. Bilayer-graphene (BLG)+BN and trilayer-graphene (TLG)+BN heterostructures show a non-monotonic behavior of charge injection versus pressure, indicative of competing electronic structure modifications. First-principle calculations of these systems indicate a pressure-induced van der Waals-to-covalent interlayer transition, where such interlayer covalent binding, in the presence of water molecules, results in a disordered insulating structure for the MLG + BN case, while it leads to an ordered conducting structure for both BLG + BN and TLG + BN heterostructures. These opposing effects may have a strong influence on graphene/h-BN-based electronic devices and their physics under pressurized environments.
Brando G, Falciano FT, Linder EV, Velten HES
. Modified gravity away from a $\upLambda$CDM background
. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [Internet]. 2019;2019 (11) :018–018. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Within the effective field theory approach to cosmic acceleration, the background expansion can be specified separately from the gravitational modifications. We explore the impact of modified gravity in a background different from a cosmological constant plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) on the stability and cosmological observables, including covariance between gravity and expansion parameters. In No Slip Gravity the more general background allows more gravitational freedom, including both positive and negative Planck mass running. We examine the effects on cosmic structure growth, as well as showing that a viable positive integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect crosscorrelation easily arises from this modified gravity theory. Using current data we constrain parameters with a Monte Carlo analysis, finding a bound on the running |αM,max|≲ 0.03 (95% CL) for the adopted form at all cosmic times. We provide the modified hi_class code publicly on GitHub, now enabling computation and inclusion of the redshift space distortion observable fσ8 as well as the No Slip Gravity modifications.
Lourenço GM, Keesen F, Fagundes R, Luna P, Silva AC, Ribeiro SP, Arashiro E
. Recruitment and entropy decrease during trail formation by foraging ants
. Insectes Sociaux [Internet]. 2019. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Social insects utilise a complex spatial orientation system mediated by chemical signals. This study investigated how the foraging behaviour of ants (Dorymyrmex thoracicus) varies depending on the quantity of an available resource using a field experiment. Further, we demonstrated computationally that ant displacement is compatible with a model based on pheromone deposition. Our experiment tested how the resource size (large or small) and availability (one or two simultaneous patches) of resources offered influence the number of recruited ants (traffic flow) and the speed of traffic flow both moving towards a resource and returning to the colony. The results showed that the returning flow was higher than the going flow independent of resource. The traffic flow towards a single resource was higher than the flow for either of two simultaneous resources patches offered; thus, multiple resources sources split the flow, regardless of the fact that resource size did not affect foraging choices. Our results indicated that the ants used an orientation mechanism that can be reproduced by a theoretical computer model. With our model, we showed that initially, the displacement of ants followed no clearly detectable pattern. However, with increasing levels of ant recruitment and consequent pheromone deposition on the most used trails, returning displacement revealed the formation of shorter and more organised trails. The model revealed key transition between periods of order and disorder that continued until the flow of information reached an organised state (Shannon entropy). This study highlights an exceptional mechanism of foraging optimisation in eusocial insects.
Boriero D, Schwarz DJ, Velten H
. Flavour Composition and Entropy Increase of Cosmological Neutrinos After Decoherence
. Universe [Internet]. 2019;5 (10). Publisher's VersionAbstract
We propose that gravitational interactions of cosmic neutrinos with the statistically homogeneous and isotropic fluctuations of space-time lead to decoherence. This working hypothesis, which we describe by means of a Lindblad operator, is applied to the system of two- and three-flavour neutrinos undergoing vacuum oscillations and the consequences are investigated. As a result of this decoherence we find that the neutrino entropy would increase as a function of initial spectral distortions, mixing angles and charge-parity (CP)-violation phase. Subsequently we discuss the chances to discover such an increase observationally (in principle). We also present the expected flavour composition of the cosmic neutrino background after decoherence is completed. The physics of two- or three-flavour oscillation of cosmological neutrinos resembles in many aspects two- or three-level systems in atomic clocks, which were recently proposed by Weinberg for the study of decoherence phenomena.
Calheiro DS, Bianchi RF
. Tuning the detection limit in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for improving electrical performance of sensing devices
. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical [Internet]. 2019;298 :111480. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Research in hybrid electronics has included advances in materials, devices and architectures. However, in practice, controversy still exists on some details which limit hybrid materials to high-performance applications, such as processing–structure–design–property relations. This paper describes a practical approach to enhancing the sensing performance of a prototype ammonia gas sensor based on electrical conductivity changes, percolation theory and current limitation to a semiconducting polymer-metal oxide medium. This device is based on fully-gravure printed polyaniline/indium - tin oxide nanocomposites, Pani100−xITOx [0 ≤ x≤ 100% (wt/wt)], layers on a freestanding high-density polyethylene substrate. We find that the electrical current of the device decreases and tends to saturate as the gas concentration increases, and the value of this electrical current limit (IL) depends on x: the higher the value of x, the smaller the IL, when the current that flows through the electronic device was dominated by the ITO-nanoparticle filled PAni, which increase the concentration of hopping carriers and contribute to the desired electrical response of a heterogeneous gas sensor. In this regime, we find a good linear relationship between x and ammonia concentration. These findings suggest new directions for future research on the development and investigation of organic-inorganic devices in which the electrical current variation is desired for enhanced sensitivity and stability of hybrid sensors.
Nascimento R, Moraes EE, Matos MJS, Prendergast D, Manhabosco TM, de Oliveira AB, Chacham H, Batista RJC
. Graphene/h-BN In-Plane Heterostructures: Stability and Electronic and Transport Properties
. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C [Internet]. 2019;123 (30) :18600-18608. Publisher's Version
Santos J, Barboza A, Matos MJS, Barcelos ID, Fernandes TFD, Soares EA, Moreira RL, Almeida Neves BR
. Exfoliation and characterization of a two-dimensional serpentine-based material
. Nanotechnology [Internet]. 2019. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We report on an experimental investigation of serpentine, an abundant phyllosilicate, as an alternative source of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. We show, through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements, that natural serpentine mineral can be mechanically exfoliated down to few-layer flakes, where monolayers can be easily resolved. The parent serpentine bulk material was initially characterized via conventional techniques like XRD, XPS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies and the results show that it is predominantly constituted by the antigorite mineral. From ab initio calculations using DFT, we also determine the geometry and electronic structure of antigorite, the observed structural form of serpentine. Additionally, we further characterized electrical and mechanical properties of the obtained 2D material flakes using SPM and broadband synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy. Wavelength tuning of the serpentine vibrational resonances, assigned to in- and out-of-plane molecular vibrations, are observed and compared with the FTIR characterization of the parent bulk material. They show that there is no degradation of serpentine`s structural properties during its mechanical exfoliation down to nanometer-thin sheets. Therefore, our results introduce the serpentine mineral as an attractive low-cost candidate in 2D materials applications.
Zimdahl W, Velten HES, Algoner WC
. Matter growth in extended $Łambda$CDM cosmology
. Int. J. Mod. Phys. 2019;D28 (06) :1950086.