Luminescent copper(I) complexes have drawn attention due to their promising performance as alternative optoelectronic materials to the well-known heavy transition metals complexes. Herein, we report the synthesis of six luminescent Cu(I) complexes with phosphines and 1,10-phenanthroline-derived ligands with thiadiazole and selenodiazole groups in order to evaluate the effect of heavy atom on their photophysical properties. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy confirmed delayed fluorescence emission via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism in all cases. The experimental spectroscopic data was analyzed with detailed quantum-chemical calculations. Interestingly, these complexes did not show the expected “heavy atom effect”, that enhances the spin-orbit coupling matrix elements, but nevertheless the addition of the heavier chalcogens contributed to reduce the photoluminescence lifetime to roughly 800 ns, which is the lowest reported so far for such TADF materials.
The isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones (phthalides) exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant activity on reactive oxygen species (ROS). An excess of ROS that cannot be naturally contained by cellular enzymatic systems is called redox imbalance, which damage cell membranes, proteins, and DNA, thereby possibly triggering neuronal death in several neurodegenerative diseases. Considering our ongoing efforts to find useful compounds to control redox imbalance, herein we evaluated the antioxidant activity of two phtalides (compounds 3 and 4), using primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Spectrophotometric assays showed that compound 3 significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) ROS levels and lipid peroxidation compared to the control treatment, while compound 4 was unable at any of the tested concentrations. Despite their structural similarity, these compounds behave differently in the intracellular environment, which was reliably corroborated by the determination of oxidation potentials via cyclic voltammetry. It was demonstrated that compound 3 presents a lower oxidation potential. The combination of the mentioned methods allowed us to find a strong correlation between the chemical structure of compounds and their biological effects. Taking together, the results indicate that compound 3 presents desirable characteristics to act as a candidate pharmacological agent for use in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Difluoroboron β-diketonates complexes are highly luminescent with extensive properties such as their fluorescence both in solution and in solid state and their high molar extinction coefficients. Due to their rich optical properties, these compounds have been studied for their applications in organic electronics such as in self-assembly and applications in biosensors, bio-imaging and optoelectronic devices. The easy and fast synthesis of difluoroboron β-diketonate (BF2dbm) complexes makes their applications even more attractive. Although many different types of difluoroboron β-diketonates complexes have been studied, the cyclic flavanone analogues of these compounds have never been reported in the literature. Therefore, the present work aims to synthesize difluouroboron flavanone β-diketonate complexes, study their photophysical and electrochemical properties and assess their suitability for applications in optoelectronic devices. The synthesis was based on a Baker–Venkataraman reaction which initially provided substituted diketones, which were subsequently reacted with aldehydes to afford the proposed flavanones. The complexation was achieved by reacting flavanones and BF3. Et2O and in total 9 novel compounds were obtained. A representative difluoroboron flavanone complex was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction to unequivocally confirm the chemical structure. A stability study indicated only partial degradation of these compounds over a few days in a protic solvent at elevated temperatures. Photophysical studies revealed that the substituent groups and the solvent media significantly influence the electrochemical and photophysical properties of the final compounds, especially the molar absorption coefficient, fluorescence quantum yields, and the band gap. Moreover, the compounds exhibited a single excited-state lifetime in all studied solvent. Computational studies were employed to evaluate ground and excited states properties and carry out DFT and TDDFT level analysis. These studies clarify the role of each state in the experimental absorption spectra as well as the effect of the solvent.
The current Universe is composed by a mixture of relativistic species, baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy which evolve in a non-trivial way at perturbative level. An advanced description of the cosmological dynamics should include non-standard features beyond the simplistic approach idealized by the standard cosmology in which cosmic components do not interact, are adiabatic and dissipationless. We promote a full perturbative analysis of linear scalar perturbations of a non-interacting cosmological model containing baryons, dark matter (both pressureless) and a scalar field allowing for the presence of relative entropic perturbations between the three fluids. Assuming an effective scalar-field sound speed equal to one and neglecting anisotropic stresses we establish a new set of equations for the scalar cosmological perturbations. As a consequence of this new approach, we show that tiny departures from a constant scalar field equation of state wS=−1 damage structure formation in a non-acceptable manner. Hence, by strongly constraining wS our results provide compelling evidence in favor of the standard cosmological model and rule out a large class of dynamical dark energy models.
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been investigated as biological agents for the treatment and diagnosis of bone diseases due to their properties, providing high affinity to bone tissues and also due to the possibility to chemically modify the surfaces of these nanoparticles to provide active targeting to bone tumors or other bone disorders. In this work, synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and their surface modifications with folic and medronic acid were studied. Copper-64 was produced by neutron irradiation in a TRIGA MARK I nuclear reactor, and the functionalized nanoparticles radiolabeled with this radioisotope. The multi-technique characterization includes FTIR, PXRD, TGA, DSC, CHN, Zeta potential, XPS, SEM, TEM, and Gamma spectroscopy. Furthermore, the evaluation of the chemical interaction stability was through leaching tested for efficiency. The results indicate that folic and medronic acids can be covalently bonded to HA surface, producing a new material not yet described in the literature, been stably attached to hydroxyapatite nanoparticle surfaces, able to provide active targeting for bone disorders. The complexation of copper-64 provides high radiochemistry purity, although the specific activity must be improved.
The mixed crystals of the Tutton’s salt doped with Li following the empirical formula K2LiyNixCo1-x (SO4)2.6H2O, were synthesized from the slow evaporation of the solvent at constant temperature. The presence of K, S, Ni, Co and O elements in the studied crystalline structure was confirmed by EDS spectroscopy using a scanning electron microscope and their quantification including Li was carried out with the help of ICP-OES technique. Raman spectroscopy in the range 100−3600 cm−1, confirmed the presence of tetrahedral (SO4), octahedral complexes Ni(H2O)6, Co(H2O)6, and H2O molecules in the crystal structure. Our UV–vis studies have shown that the mixed crystals have good optical transparency in the ultraviolet (200−350 nm) and infrared (750−1000 nm) region. The direct and indirect optical energy gap of the synthesized crystals were determined from the Tauc’s plot. XRD diffractograms of the sample crystals do not show any specific changes due to the presence of Li ion in the crystalline network.
Background We investigated a likely scenario of COVID-19 spreading in Brazil through the complex airport network of the country, for the 90 days after the first national occurrence of the disease. After the confirmation of the first imported cases, the lack of a proper airport entrance control resulted in the infection spreading in a manner directly proportional to the amount of flights reaching each city, following the first occurrence of the virus coming from abroad. Methodology We developed a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model divided in a metapopulation structure, where cities with airports were demes connected by the number of flights. Subsequently, we further explored the role of the Manaus airport for a rapid entrance of the pandemic into indigenous territories situated in remote places of the Amazon region. Results The expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus between cities was fast, directly proportional to the city closeness centrality within the Brazilian air transportation network. There was a clear pattern in the expansion of the pandemic, with a stiff exponential expansion of cases for all the cities. The more a city showed closeness centrality, the greater was its vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions We discussed the weak pandemic control performance of Brazil in comparison with other tropical, developing countries, namely India and Nigeria. Finally, we proposed measures for containing virus spreading taking into consideration the scenario of high poverty.
Propolis is a natural, non-toxic resin produced by honey bees that has been used for hundreds of years for its biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic, and cariostatic properties. Currently, it is used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, sun protection factor, and photostability of different hydroalcoholic extracts of green propolis. All extracts prepared presented high absorption in the UVB region. The extract of 70% green propolis (high temperature) was incorporated into Gel Permulen TR-1. This new formulation presented a higher value of sun protection factor. Besides that, the formulation developed with Gel Permulen TR-1 and the hydroalcoholic extract of 70% green propolis (high temperature) showed good photostability and it was safe to be applied on the skin according the HET-CAM test. These results indicated the potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of 70% green propolis (high temperature) for use in sunscreen.
Low-dimensionality materials are highly susceptible to interfaces. Indeed, intercalation of different chemical species in between epitaxial graphene and silicon carbide (SiC), for instance, may decouple the graphene with respect to the substrate due to the conversion of the buffer layer into a graphene layer. O-intercalation is known to release the strain of such 2D material and to lead to the formation of high structural quality AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Nonetheless, this interface transformation concomitantly degrades graphene electronic transport properties. In this work we employed different techniques in order to better understand the structure of the graphene/SiC interface generated by O-intercalation and to elucidate the origin of the poor electronic properties of graphene. Experimental results revealed the formation of a SiO2 rich layer with a defective transition layer in between it and the SiC, which is characterized by the existence of silicon oxycarbide structures. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements revealed an extensive presence of electronic states just around the Fermi level all over the sample surface, which may suppress the charge carriers mobility around this region. According to theoretical calculations, such states are mainly due to the formation of silicon oxicarbides within the interfacial layer.
Molecular Dynamics simulations of water confined in carbon nanotubes subjected to external electric fields show that water mobility strongly depends on the confining geometry, the intensity and directionality of the electric field. While fields forming angles of 0° and 45° slow down the water dynamics by increasing organization, perpendicular fields can enhance water diffusion by decreasing hydrogen bond formation. For 1.2 diameter long nanotubes, the parallel field destroys the ice-like water structure increasing mobility. These results indicate that the structure and dynamics of confined water are extremely sensitive to external fields and can be used to facilitate filtration processes.
Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of fluorophores containing a 2,1,3-benzoxadiazole unit associated with a π-conjugated system (D-π-A-π-D). These new fluorophores in solution exhibited an absorption maximum at around 419 nm (visible region), as expected for electronic transitions of the π-π* type (ε 2.7 × 107 L mol−1 cm−1), and strong solvent-dependent fluorescence emission (ΦFL 0.5) located in the bluish-green region. The Stokes' shift of these compounds is ca. 3,779 cm−1, which was attributed to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. In CHCl3 solution, the compounds exhibited longer and shorter lifetimes, which was attributed to the emission of monomeric and aggregated molecules, respectively. Density functional theory was used to model the electronic structure of the compounds 9a–d in their excited and ground electronic states. The simulated emission spectra are consistent with the experimental results, with different solvents leading to a shift in the emission peak and the attribution of a π-π* state with the characteristics of a charge transfer excitation. The thermal properties were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis, and a high maximum degradation rate occurred at around 300°C. Electrochemical studies were also performed in order to determine the band gaps of the molecules. The electrochemical band gaps (2.48–2.70 eV) showed strong correlations with the optical band gaps (2.64–2.67 eV).
Background. We investigated a likely scenario of COVID-19 spreading in Brazil through the complex airport network of the country, for the 90 days after the first national occurrence of the disease. After the confirmation of the first imported cases, the lack of a proper airport entrance control resulted in the infection spreading in a manner directly proportional to the amount of flights reaching each city, following first occurrence of the virus coming from abroad. Methodology. We developed a SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model divided in a metapopulation structure, where cities with airports were demes connected by the number of flights. Subsequently, we further explored the role of Manaus airport for a rapid entrance of the pandemic into indigenous territories situated in remote places of the Amazon region. Results. The expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus between cities was fast, directly proportional to the airport closeness centrality within the Brazilian air transportation network. There was a clear pattern in the expansion of the pandemic, with a stiff exponential expansion of cases for all cities. The more an airport showed closeness centrality, the greater was its vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions. We discussed the weak pandemic control performance of Brazil in comparison with other tropical, developing countries, namely India and Nigeria. Finally, we proposed measures for containing virus spreading taking into consideration the scenario of high poverty.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementFunding by CNPqAuthor DeclarationsAll relevant ethical guidelines have been followed; any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained and details of the IRB/oversight body are included in the manuscript.YesAll necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesI state all data will be available in submission material
Viscous properties are attributed to the dark sector of the Universe. They contribute to the accelerated expansion phase of the Universe and can alleviate existing tensions in the ΛCDM model at small scales. We provide a short review of recent efforts on this topic. Different viscous models for the dark sector are analysed both from theoretical and observational point of view.
The control of geometric structure is a key aspect in the interplay between theoretical predictions and experimental realization in the science and applications of nanomaterials. This is particularly important in one-dimensional structures such as nanoribbons, in which the edge morphology dictates most of the electronic behavior in low energy scale. In the present work we demonstrate by means of first principles calculations that the oxidation of few-layer antimonene may lead to an atomic restructuring with formation of ordered multilayer zig-zag nanoribbons. The widths are uniquely determined by the number of layers of the initial structure, allowing the synthesis of ultranarrow ribbons and chains. We also show that the process may be extended to other compounds based on group V elements, such as arsenene. The characterization of the electronic structure of the resulting ribbons shows an important effect of stacking on band gaps and on modulation of electronic behavior.
Generalized uncertainty principles (GUP) and, independently, Lorentz symmetry violations are two common features in many candidate theories of quantum gravity. Despite that, the overlap between both has received limited attention so far. In this brief paper, we carry out further investigations on this topic. At the nonrelativistic level and in the realm of commutative spacetime coordinates, a large class of both isotropic and anisotropic GUP models is shown to produce signals experimentally indistinguishable from those predicted by the Standard Model Extension (SME), the common framework for studying Lorentz-violating phenomena beyond the Standard Model. This identification is used to constrain GUP models using current limits on SME coefficients. In particular, bounds on isotropic GUP models are improved by a factor of $10^7$ compared to current spectroscopic bounds and anisotropic models are constrained for the first time.
Abstract Research in hybrid and flexible natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites has included advances in innovative and environmentally sustainable devices. However, in practice, controversies still exist regarding the relationship between electrical and materials performance targets in a system design context. This work aimed to investigate the alternating conductivity of a novel pressure sensor based on semiconducting polyaniline (PANI)-coated vegetable fiber (VF, Euterpe oleracea Mart., Acai) in silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber. We used alternating electrical conductivity measurements, σ*(ω) ∝ ωs (frequency range—ω from 1 Hz to 10 MHz; s 0.6), to adjust the optimal operating frequency region to enhance the pressure sensing performance of the PDMS-PANI-VF composites. A generalized effective-medium approach to the pressure-induced conductivity in terms of loading pressure, percolation regime, and the interpolation between Bruggeman's symmetric and asymmetric media theories was obtained. We have found a solution for inducing percolation in composites with a low concentration of fiber inclusions by uniaxial pressure (P), characterized by the expression σ ∝ (P−P0)t (0 ≤ t ≤ 4.0, 0 ≤ P0 ≤ 250 kPa). The sensor demonstrates maximum sensitivity of 1.5 Pa−1 in the operating electrical frequency from 1 to 100 Hz, and a wide linearity range from 0 to 250 kPa. The result provides new insight into the AC universality, s, and t behaviors of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites to enhance pressure sensitivity of a new concept and technology for resource-efficiency optimization of sustainable environmental devices.
In this work we apply first principles calculations to investigate the stability trends of mixed boron, nitrogen and carbon diamondol-like compounds. Several distinct geometric models are tested by varying the stoichiometry and position of boron and nitrogen dopants. We verify the special stability of a complete boron nitride compound – the bonitrol –, and we show that carbon substitutions in the bonitrol structure may also lead to stable systems. The electronic characterization of the resulting compounds indicates a rich phenomenology, with metallic, semimetallic, half-metallic and semiconducting behaviors.